Medical research ethics case studies

Ethical Controversy in Human Subjects Research

Her cell phone was taken away for a teen, this may be worse than the nausea and vomiting and the phone in her hospital room was also removed. For example, questions about informed consent arise in the context of research with stroke patients, with students, and with other vulnerable groups.

If the available data do not favor any of the treatments being used, randomizing subjects seems as good a process as any other for choosing which treatment they receive.

Children certainly benefit from previous research studies, but typically do so unknowingly and often with vigorous opposition. Through structured discussion, ethical development and decision-making skills can be enhanced. Clinical research poses three types of net risks: Exposing factory workers to risks for the benefit of others is deemed ethically acceptable when they agree to do the work and are paid a fair wage.

A method of HIV prevention called pre-exposure prophylaxis PrEP has been shown to be effective in three clinical trials in the past couple Medical research ethics case studies years.

One might conclude that exposing subjects to risks is regarded as problematic only to the extent that it has the potential to harm them. Scientific validity A study should be designed in a way that will get an understandable answer to the valuable research question.

For example, Douglas Wassenaar and Nicole Mamotte describe Medical research ethics case studies study in which professors enrolled their students, which raises the question of the vulnerability of student subjects to pressure.

Lind assigned the different existing treatments for scurvy to the sailors in his study based not on what he thought was best for them, but based on what he thought would yield an effective comparative test. Enrolment of children with underlying medical conditions can complicate the safety outcomes.

Ethical analyses of such cases demonstrate the relevance of ethics to the actual practice of medical research and provide paradigmatic illustrations of the application of ethical principles to particular research situations.

This approach seems to preclude essentially all research with healthy volunteers. Now, given recent scientific advances in HIV prevention, we are likely to see a resurgence of that debate. One could simply insist that the informed consent of subjects is necessary to ethical clinical research and accept the opportunity costs thus incurred.

Risks and Benefits Almost all research poses some risk of harm to participants. Lind assigned a different intervention to each of the groups, including two sailors turned research subjects who received 2 oranges and 1 lemon each day.

Judgments regarding the present state of society concern very general level considerations and a determination that society overall is doing fairly well is consistent with many individuals suffering terrible diseases. Who should impose what sanction s?

If this were a one-shot treatment—perhaps painful or uncomfortable but over quickly—it would be easy to conclude that forced medical treatment would do more good than harm.

In other words, answers to the research question should contribute to scientific understanding of health or improve our ways of preventing, treating, or caring for people with a given disease.

To that extent, these attitudes do not provide an ethical argument for exposing research subjects to risks for the benefit of others.

Different medical conditions may require distinctive research designs, different patient populations may need special protections, and different locations may require researchers to respond to study populations who are very poor and lack access to health care or to significant variations in regulatory systems.

Scale up services for mental disorders: The process of testing potential new treatments can take years, and is standardly divided into phases. While more than one acceptable solution may be possible, not all solutions are acceptable.

This view is much less restrictive than current regulations for clinical research, but seems to be less permissive than a Libertarian analysis.

Ethical Controversy in Human Subjects Research

Greater concern is raised by attempts to obtain a kidney from a healthy, consenting adult and give it to an unidentified individual. Almost no one in the field argues that it is permissible for investigators to conduct any research they want provided they obtain the free and informed consent of the subjects they enroll.31 rows · Research case country location year summary Psychosurgery: s.

Vaccine clinical research needs to deal with certain ethical issues because of the inherent nature of these trials. The issues are more complicated since the research mostly happens in pediatric populations in developing countries.

Bioethics and Medical ethics: Case Studies at the Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity (skip the AMA links Engineering Professional Practice cases from the Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Research. Engineering Ethics Case studies from the Ethics Education Library. Public attention to ethics in research involving human subjects typically emerges from shocking scandals.

The best-known examples include the Tuskegee syphilis study, the Willowbrook hepatitis experiments and the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital case. A selection of medical ethics cases designed to help determine whether medicine is the correct calling for pre-medical students. Public attention to ethics in research involving human subjects typically emerges from shocking scandals.

The best-known examples include the Tuskegee syphilis study, the Willowbrook hepatitis experiments and the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital case.

In the Tuskegee study, poor black men in Alabama were observed for more than 40 years to .

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Medical research ethics case studies
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